Robert Gaskins invented PowerPoint, drawing on ten years of interdisciplinary graduate study at Berkeley and five years as manager of computer science research for an international telecommunications R&D laboratory in Silicon Valley. Gaskins managed the design and development of PowerPoint as a startup where it attracted the first venture capital investment ever made by Apple Computer. It was released for Macintosh in April 1987; soon after, it became the first significant acquisition ever made by Microsoft, who set up a new business unit in Silicon Valley to develop it further. Gaskins headed this new Microsoft group for another five years, completing versions of the PowerPoint product through the explosive initial growth of Microsoft Windows and the creation of the Microsoft Office bundle.
In this conversation, Robert discusses how PowerPoint evolved, and how it was named.
Geetesh: Twenty-five years ago, you created PowerPoint -- as far as the program is concerned, what's the same? And what's different?
Robert: Curiously, PowerPoint itself has probably changed less than the world around it has changed in twenty-five years.
PowerPoint was developed very carefully, and with a lot of planning for how it would evolve, so early on it achieved pretty much its complete set of concepts and functions. Since that time a tremendous amount of work has been required to re-implement it for many generations of new platform versions, but the product concept has remained stable. What is very different today is who uses PowerPoint, and how.
PowerPoint 1.0 (for Mac, April 1987) produced overhead transparencies on a black-and-white Macintosh for laser printing (normally on paper, to be photocopied to transparencies). It also produced notes for the presenter, and handouts for the audience.
PowerPoint boxes, then and now. Left, PowerPoint 1.0 for Mac as shipped in 1987 by Forethought; right, PowerPoint 2010 being shipped today by Microsoft.
Overhead transparencies were clear films, the size of a sheet of A4 or letter paper, and were projected from a lighted platform through a mirror and lens positioned "overhead" on a raised arm. Before PowerPoint, they were usually produced by photocopying a page that had been typed by the department secretary (the only person with a typewriter), with hand-drawn diagrams. There was no color, because copiers then produced only black-and-white images.
Overhead presentations were used for "talking in meetings," designed for a fully lighted room (hence black letters on a clear back-ground) where the speaker and others could see one another and interact. Transparencies were not a performance in and of themselves but a focus point.
Using PowerPoint 1.0, presenters could directly control their own overheads and would no longer have to work through the person with the typewriter. PowerPoint handled the task of making the overheads all look alike; one change reformats them all. Typographic fonts were better than a typewriter, and charts and diagrams could be imported from MacDraw, MacPaint, and Excel, thanks to the new Mac clipboard. Macintosh had no color and no video out, but it was a good match to overheads.
Dennis Austin was the first architect who designed the PowerPoint program, starting in late 1984; Thomas Rudkin joined him in 1986, and they developed all of the PowerPoint 1.0 software.
PowerPoint was designed to take advantage of graphical personal computers, specifically Macintosh and Windows. We introduced three major versions over its first five years, 1987 to 1992, corresponding to three kinds of presentations: PowerPoint 1.0 made black-and-white overheads; PowerPoint 2.0 (for Mac, 1988; for Windows, 1990) added color 35mm slides, sent over a modem to a service bureau for imaging and film processing; and PowerPoint 3.0 (for Mac and Windows, 1992) added video effects so video could replace "multimedia" shows, which simulated motion by using large banks of synchronized 35mm slide projectors.
Design for PowerPoint 1.0 for Windows 2.0, October 1987, showing multiple-document interface. (This version was never shipped; PowerPoint 2.0 was the first version shipped for Windows, three years later.)
All through this early period PowerPoint was used primarily in businesses. In small businesses, PowerPoint was used for sales presentations to external customers. In large businesses, PowerPoint was also used for internal employee communication. But PowerPoint was by no means familiar to everyone. Even with PowerPoint, producing overheads and 35mm slides was still time-consuming and fairly expensive. Only organizations could afford presentation graphics—and mostly businesses, to make sales.
Gradually, laptops became capable of running PowerPoint slideshows and video projectors became smaller and brighter -- and both laptops and projectors became much cheaper. By around the year 2000, the whole process of producing overheads and 35mm slides disappeared, and PowerPoint was used directly for video shows, cutting out the step of making overheads or slides. With every step forward in convenience and every cut in cost, more and more people used presentation graphics -- the very large potential market gradually revealed itself.
Microsoft says that the Office product including PowerPoint is now installed on more than one billion computers, in every country worldwide. Just about every organization in the world uses it, not only companies large and small but entrepreneurs, artists, non-profits, students, governments, and religious leaders. Primary school children must pass exams in using PowerPoint, since their teachers believe that knowing it will be vital to their future success -- at all levels of education and in their careers. Steven Pinker says that "these days scientists … cannot lecture without PowerPoint." Sermons are delivered using PowerPoint in church buildings rebuilt to incorporate large screens for the purpose. The Secretary of State uses PowerPoint to address the United Nations on questions of war and peace. Newspapers and magazines and books mention PowerPoint casually with no explanation needed. Novelists write chapters of their books in PowerPoint. Rich Gold says that "within today's corporation, if you want to communicate an idea to your peers or to your boss or to your employees or to your customer or even to your enemy, you use PowerPoint."
A world where so many people use PowerPoint is a very different world from twenty-five years ago. The world is also different in another way: looking back, it would seem that PowerPoint must always have been an obviously great idea. That isn't true at all. Most people who heard about PowerPoint early thought it was a bad idea -- often the same people who thought that Mac and Windows wouldn't catch on. When PowerPoint was being developed, those people were a clear majority. Today everybody understands the large market for PowerPoint which has been revealed.
The PowerPoint group at Microsoft Menlo Park in 1992, when about a hundred people were working on the PowerPoint 3.0 version of the product.
Geetesh: Many stories have floated about how PowerPoint got its name—what's the real story?
Robert: There have been so many questions about how PowerPoint got its name that I decided to set down the entire story, once and for all, in the book I wrote to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of PowerPoint’s first shipment. Here is how it happened.
We called our product "Presenter" for the three years of its development, and never imagined that the name wouldn't be available for the final product.
In those days, it was no concern that the corresponding domain name might not be available; there were only 115 domains registered (.com, .org, .edu, and .net) on the date that PowerPoint 1.0 shipped, and the web wouldn't come along for a while -- Tim Berners-Lee made the web publicly available for the first time on August 6, 1991, and the Mosaic browser wasn't released until 1993, after I had left Microsoft! If we had wanted a domain name, just about any domain name, it would have been no problem.
Toward the end of the development, we needed to register our product name as a trademark. Not all companies bothered about this; Microsoft, for instance, couldn't trademark either "Word" or "Excel" -- or even, for a long time, "Windows." But we thought it was prudent to have the name trademarked, and venture capital investors always liked to see "defensible" intellectual property being created, because that can add value at a liquidity event.
Much to our surprise, when the name went to our intellectual property lawyers for a pro-forma review, they responded that "Presenter" had been previously used for presentation software shipped along with presentation hardware by some company in New Jersey. So, very suddenly and very unexpectedly, we lacked a name for our product at the last minute. There was great pressure to come up with the name, because it was fundamental for preparing lots of printed materials with long lead times, which had to be ready to go in the box on ship day -- the manual, the reference cards, the box itself -- not to mention advertising and PR materials, and work on all that already had begun.
We spent at least a week with everyone trying to think up a new name. We had already used a name based on Aldus's PageMaker for our published database product FileMaker, so naturally there was some lobbying for another "family member" -- —SlideMaker? OverheadMaker? For those with mostly short-term interest, these seemed ideal: such a name would clearly express what the product does, would show the family resemblance of Forethought product names, and would use a model that customers already understood. From my longer-term outlook, though, it was entirely wrong to focus on the physical embodiment created by the first release of the product; that turned out to be an excellent call, after slides and overheads disappeared! And anyway, the product didn't make "slides," it made entire "presentations," composed of many slides plus other elements such as notes and handouts.
So, I resisted the family-style names and continued to think. The pressure was high, because we were about to ship. Then one morning, when I was taking a shower (where most of history's great discoveries seem to have occurred), I thought of the name PowerPoint, for no obvious reason. I went in to work and proposed it to other people. No one else much liked it, but I became attached to it. Later that same day, Glenn Hobin, our VP of Sales, returned from a sales trip, and he had an idea for a name: when his airplane was taking off, he had seen out the window along the runway a sign reading "POWER POINT." I took his independent discovery as a favorable omen, and we were truly out of time; so I forced the issue, and we sent the name PowerPoint off to our lawyers. Use of the extra internal upper-case letter was mandatory in those days for Mac software, based on Apple's style in product naming.
The creators of PowerPoint, then and now. Top, left to right, are Dennis Austin, Robert Gaskins, and Thomas Rudkin, pictured in 1987. Below, the same three pictured at a reunion dinner on 08 May 2012, with their wives. Left to right: Dennis Austin, Jan Austin, Leanna Gaskins, Jann Rudkin, Robert Gaskins, Thomas Rudkin. (Dennis Austin was the first architect who designed the PowerPoint program, starting in late 1984; Thomas Rudkin joined him in 1986, and they developed all of the PowerPoint 1.0 software.)
Our lawyers reported that "powerpoint" had been registered in a number of classes of products, including fishing hooks and ballpoint pens (a PaperMate product in the 1970s), but hadn’t been registered for software -- we could use it. So we committed and started revising the drafts of our printed materials.
This really was at the very last minute: in my notebooks, I was using "Presenter" as late as 13 January 1987, in a presentation to Apple's VC group; but an entry from a week later, 21 January 1987, about a presentation to our Board of Directors, for the first time includes "PowerPoint (new name)." So the change was made just barely one month before our formal announcement, and three months before the first shipments of completed product boxes went to customers.
"PowerPoint" was properly registered as a trademark from the first ship of PowerPoint 1.0 on 20 April 1987, for "Prerecorded computer programs recorded on magnetic disks, in Class 9 (U.S. Cl. 38)."
In retrospect, it was great that we found a name so distinctive that it could come to mean "any presentation" or "any materials for delivering a presentation," as well as naming our specific product, and so abstract that it could survive the obsolescence of overheads and 35mm slides.
Plus, it suggested our goal of putting power into the hands of the individual content originator. The "Power" in "PowerPoint" was thought of, not as in "Powerful," but as in "Empowerment."
"PowerPoint" is a much better name, but if "Presenter" had been available, we would never have considered anything else.
The old Forethought building in Sunnyvale, California, acquired by Microsoft along with PowerPoint, shown here in 1987 when a Microsoft sign had just been added.
The new PowerPoint building on Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park, California, built to house a much larger team, shown here in 1992 at about the time of PowerPoint 3.0.
Robert Gaskins has recently written a book published to coincide with the twenty-fifth anniversary of PowerPoint's first shipment, recounting stories of the perils narrowly evaded as a startup, dissecting the complexities of being the first distant development group in Microsoft, and explaining decisions and insights that enabled PowerPoint to become a lasting success well beyond its original business uses.
Sweating Bullets: Notes about Inventing PowerPoint
by Robert Gaskins
Published by Vinland Books 2012,
Library of Congress Control: 2012936438,
Paperback 6” x 9”, 512 pp.,
US$17.99, £9.99, €12.99, ￥1,588
Special Offer: If you are an Indezine reader and would like your copy of the book signed, you can get a free personalized bookplate, hand-signed by Robert Gaskins, to be pasted into your book. Just send an email note and request to firstname.lastname@example.org, and include:
The home page for Robert Gaskins is on the web at http://www.robertgaskins.com. His site includes the full text of his recent book, for free download in searchable PDF format, as well as many unpublished documents from the early days of PowerPoint, all on the web at http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/.
Categories: interviews, memorabilia, powerpoint
PowerPoint is, no doubt, the most amazing tool for presentation designers and I wouldn't even dream about not using it nowadays but, in its early times it had much more limitations than other systems available then...
"Video effects replacing multimedia shows, which simulated motion by using large banks of synchronized 35mm slide projectors." using a desktop computer is not a PowerPoint thing...
In 1988 I was already designing what I like to call - in an obsolete way: Dynamic Computer Generated Multimedia Presentations... using Commodore Amigas and an array of software...
An example I recovered from a way old vhs tape:
Thank you for a superb insight and a very enjoyable read :-)
I wonder what Robert would say about the much banded about phrase "Death by PowerPoint" and if he has mixed feelings about what he created!
Nevertheless, it's quite a human achievement to have conceived (and built the first versions of) the best presentation environment on the planet.
I think Robert would be in the Queen's honours list if he was British!
In 1985 when I started my company MediaNet, I placed a TM (trademark) symbol next to a "graphics solution" I created called the "VideoShow Presenter System" (hardware/software) that we sold in New York, and in New Jersey (where we are still headquartered).
The hardware device (VideoShow) was made by General Parametrics (California) and we added software elements for designing visuals that would produce overheads or 35mm slides, or for use electronically on the VideoShow playback devices (similar today's presentations on a computer).
The TM was put there to show "first use" of the system --- everyone had a system solution back then --- and we filed the trademark registration papers at around that time.
I remember filling-in the trademark forms which included unique names for other components in the same hardware/software system - "Presenter" software (for design), S.N.A.P. (an intergrated circuit board) and transM.I.T.S. (a modem-based software program for sending slides to us for next-day processing). The M.I.T.S. stood for MediaNet Image Transmission System.
It is possible that our attaching our TM to the system on all the literature and in articles we contributed in the fall of 1985 and then the filing of the forms soon after, may have been what Bob's legal team uncovered, although this is the first I have heard of the story.
I can't say for sure that we are the only company who filed for the name "Presenter", but I don't recall anyone else in the area, especially NY or NJ, using a similar name. So we just might be the ones who prevented Bob's group from using "Presenter" instead of PowerPoint. It would be fun to ask him if we were the company, just to be sure.
Small world, huh?
We're not going to have any way to check which group in New Jersey had trademarked the name "Presenter" for software by 1986, thus blocking its use for PowerPoint. The Forethought legal files were boxed up and shipped to Microsoft's corporate archives immediately after the acquisition in 1987, and have doubtless been purged since then. Tom Mucciolo may have been responsible for the fact that we are not now all celebrating the twenty-fifth anniversary of Microsoft Presenter.
I certainly knew all about General Parametrics' VideoShow hardware while working on PowerPoint. The lead venture capital investor in PowerPoint was also an investor in General Parametrics. Very early I was asked to show my PowerPoint idea to the CEO of General Parametrics, who was also a professor of electrical engineering at UC Berkeley and director of its computer graphics laboratory. I showed him the idea in March of 1986, and was more than a little surprised to hear from him that the whole idea of PowerPoint was impossible, unfeasible, certainly a bad idea. We continued, of course, and shipped it a year later. A few years later, General Parametrics was out of business, replaced by PowerPoint and graphical personal computers. (I tell the story of this enounter at length in my new book.)
The name "VideoShow Presenter" came up again six years later, in 1993, when PowerPoint had already become the dominant way to produce presentations. General Parametrics introduced a hardware device by that same name:
"General Parametrics Corp. in Berkeley, Calif., has developed a device ... Called the VideoShow Presenter, the 1-pound handheld device resembles an oversized TV remote control. The $1,645 unit also features a 4-inch color liquid crystal display panel that mimics what is displayed on the PC's screen. Not only does that allow the presenter to move away from the computer but it can also do all sorts of nifty tricks. Special software will allow the presenter to secretly preview upcoming slides or display presentation notes on the LCD. --BusinessWeek, 03 October 1993
That is, the device (at 1 pound and $1,645) could do about what can be done today with PowerPoint and a free remote controller app on a smartphone. It did little to prolong General Parametrics' business.
Thanks to Tom Mucciolo for supplying his memories of twenty-five years ago. If indeed he was the reason why I had to think up the distinctive name "PowerPoint," then he did me a great favor.
I sent you a separate email reply, and Geetesh asked me to post portions of it here.
Yes, it was very likely me who put a snag in your plans for “Presenter” software, especially since we filed the papers somewhere in late 1985 and I think they were accepted before March of the next year.
As a leading reseller for many presentation-related hardware & software items, I was very familiar with the executives and engineers at General Parametrics and I knew of the extensive capabilities of the Genigraphics equipment in place at leading NYC companies, as well.
Just before I started MediaNet, I was working for a San Francisco based company (called "InterNet", no less) whose main product was the VideoShow and other integrated communication devices.
When that company was dissolved, I had already started developing the New York City & New Jersey market for VideoShow sales I started own company as "MediaNet" (because people already associated me with the other company, InterNet).
In August of 1985, I incorporated in NJ (where I lived at the time) and kept my NYC office location, as well.
We were very successful with the VideoShow and the slide making add-on (Photometric) and the integrated circuit board (Colormetric), described in this InfoWorld article from March 1988.
Yet, I am not surprised when you approached General Parametrics and they balked at PowerPoint, as the software they offered "PictureIt" was the bundled item that used the NAPLPS (North American Presentation Level Protocol Syntax) graphics for the VideoShow playback device --- which is why we had so much service (design) business after selling the devices to companies whose employees did not want to learn the software.
Eventually Freelance Graphics for Windows, Harvard Graphics and other software were made compatible with VideoShow, but the era was fading as LCD panels and more portable projectors entered the mix.
In fact, when GP introduced the "VideoShow Presenter" we were already onto other technologies and the device was not the same as our bundled solution, so we agreed not to challenge their use of the name. I never promoted that device, especially since my seminars were based on non-verbal skills where holding a device like that would be too distracting.
Just as you noted, by the time the VideoShow Presenter was introduced, we knew it was not going to find success and it wasn't long before GP was done.
I was already working with InFocus Systems (Oregon) and we were conducting 40-city tours with Toshiba and Lotus (Freelance), who was eventually replaced by Microsoft in our later tours.
In time, PowerPoint eventually dominated the market, and one major reason was the fact that it was part of the Office bundle, which Lotus later realized would be a marketing necessity, as well.
For a while, Lotus Freelance Graphics, PowerPoint and Harvard Graphics (Software Publishing Corp) were very competitive, along with Corel and a few others.
Over the years we have trademarked and copyrighted many items, all in the area of visual communication, but I never knew the history of PowerPoint as a replacement name until I read your interview with Geetesh. I suspect whether you had been able to use "Presenter" or "PowerPoint" the results would be the same.
It is great to share these memories and I am happy to have been a unique part of your success!
All the Best,
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